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Research projects

Bowel And Bladder function in Infant Toilet Training (BABITT) - a randomized multicenter intervention study

About this project

Project information

Project status

In progress 2019 - 2026


Barbro Hedin Skogman

Research subject

The mastery of toilet training is an important developmental milestone for children and parents. The age at which children start toilet training has increased during the last decades in the Western world. Fifty years ago most children were out of nappies by 1,5 years of age. Today, wearing nappies by 3-4 years of age is considered normal. Meanwhile an increase in functional disorders such as constipation, bladder dysfunction and toileting problems is reported by health care professionals.


We have in 2019 started a randomized intervention study at Child Health Care Centers in Sweden to investigate whether potty training during the first year of life can affect the occurrence of functional bowel and bladder disorders. Healthy children were randomized to start potty training at 0-2 months of age or at 9-11 months of age and will be followed up until 4 years of life.

Animated Rabbit sitting on a potty.BABITT on a potty (Made by Anna Leijon)

The overall purpose is to assess whether potty training during the first year of life can influence the prevalens of functional bowel and bladder disorders up to 4 year of age. We also intend to describe the potty training process regarding self reported parental stress and attachment.

Research funding bodies

  • Majblomman Foundation
  • Regional Research Council Mid Sweden
  • The Samariten foundation for paediatric research


  • Anna-Lena Hellström, Sahlgrenska akademin
  • Elisabet Gustavsson, Uppsala universitet
  • Region Dalarna
  • Ulla Sillen, Sahlgrenska akademin